Foundations of Civilization. Remains of the First Ancient Cities
It is difficult to assume that organized groups of people lived in some modern cities in the Neolithic and Stone Age while walking through their streets. Many of the oldest cities in the world ceased to exist in the prehistoric era. But other cities continue to exist at present. Ruins of residential buildings, luxurious temples and palaces, theaters, and fortifications remained in the memory of the ancient settlements. Many archaeological areas of world significance are accessible to absolutely everyone today. They have acquired the status of open-air museums.
You can visit a unique archaeological area in Pakistan in the Sindh province. These are the ruins of the ancient city of Mohenjo-Daro. This city was founded no later than 2,600 BC. It was one of the oldest cities on the territory of present South Asia. The archaeological area was discovered by researchers in 1920. This ancient city never ceases to amaze scientists with its correct layout. Complex religious and irrigation systems are found on its territory. Residents of Mohenjo-Daro used some of the most advanced technologies for their time in the formation of their city.
You can see the ruins of the so-called "citadel" in the central part of the city. According to the assumptions of archaeologists, it was used for protection during floods. The "Great Bath" is a no less interesting object. Its area is 83 square meters. It was used for rituals. One of the main features of the city was a complex sewer system. Researchers have discovered the world's oldest public toilets in Mohenjo Daro.
This ancient city surpassed the level of development of many other cities that existed at that time. The main mystery of the ancient city remains the cause of its disappearance. According to one of the latest versions, it was destroyed in a nuclear explosion. Scientists noted an excessively high level of radiation when studying the skeletons of locals. It was typical of the level found in people who died from a nuclear explosion. It remains unknown what could have caused such a strong explosion more than 4,000 years ago. Next - Monte Alban
Monte Alban, Mexico
The ruins of the ancient city of Monte Alban are located in the South-Eastern part of Mexico. This archaeological site was recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage site several years ago. The city was the most ancient of founded on the territory of Mesoamerica. You can see the ruins of many preserved ancient buildings in the Oaxaca Valley today. If you look at the city from a small height, you can see its Central Square. The altar is located in its center. Numerous buildings of various purposes, built of stone, are also preserved in the city. Complete article
You can see the ruins of the ancient city of Merv in Tajikistan. They are also a landmark of world significance. The results of the study showed that the very first city was founded in these places in the era of the Margian civilization. This corresponds to the beginning of the 2nd Millennium BC. The city was called Mouru initially. Its area has expanded to 60 square kilometers over hundreds of years. The city has had to endure many devastating battles over the years. It fully recovered and continued to develop after each of them. Complete article
The Egyptian city of Luxor, as well as its surroundings, is the location of unique archaeological areas. Researchers have discovered the most valuable historical artifacts in Egypt. A significant part of them was found here. Luxor is famous for its well-preserved architectural structures. Some of them are more than 4,000 years old. Complete article
You can see a unique ancient city in the territory of modern Tunisia. It's called Dougga. Its last name has been preserved to this day. The city received it from the Berbers. The name of the city is translated from their language as "pasture". You can see the buildings of the ancient city on the territory of the archaeological area. Its area is about 65 hectares today. The city was captured by vandals in its heyday. Many of its early buildings were permanently destroyed during this period. Complete article
The ancient city of Pella is located in a picturesque foothill area in Jordan. It has long been empty. The ancient city has the status of an important archaeological area today. The first official mention of this city dates back to the 4th century BC. But research data has shown that the first city was founded in this place much earlier. Researchers found traces of early Kebaran and Natufian settlements directly on this site. They were founded more than 10,000 years ago. Complete article
Jericho is often called the oldest city on earth. The earliest evidence of human habitation on its territory dates back to the 10th Millennium BC. The permanent site of ancient people was founded on the site of Jericho in the pre-ceramic Neolithic era. Finds found in the archaeological zone indicate that a highly developed civilization lived in these places thousands of years ago. The very first defensive structure was built on the territory of the ancient city in the Stone Age. Complete article
The city of Byblos attracts fans of ancient history in Lebanon. It is also one of the three most ancient cities on our planet. The earliest organized settlements in these places date back to the 7th Millennium BC. The city was formed under the now known name in the 4th Millennium BC. Byblos had the status of a major port city in the ancient era. Its inhabitants have worshiped the sun God Baal for hundreds of years. This cult is known for its incredible cruelty. Blood sacrifices were an integral part of the religious culture of the citizens. Complete article
The charming Bulgarian city of Plovdiv is officially recognized as the oldest city in modern Europe today. The earliest organized settlements were formed on the territory of the city in the 6th Millennium BC. The ancient city reached its heyday during the rule of the Thracians. It was called Eumolpiada at the time. The reign of Philip II of Macedon was the next bright turn in the history of the city. His army captured the city in 342 BC. It was renamed Philippopolis after that. Complete article
Derbent is considered the oldest city in the territory of modern Russia. It was founded in the Bronze Age, in the 4th Millennium BC. The first official mention of the city dates back to a much later period. Antique Hecataeus of Miletus historian wrote in his chronicles about it in the 6th century BC. The ancient city had very strategic importance. Several major trade routes passed near it in the prehistoric era. Complete article
You can see the ruins of the Neolithic settlement of Choirokoitia in the vicinity of the city of Larnaca in Cyprus. It was formed in the 7th Millennium BC. The settlement lasted for more than 3,000 years. The unique archaeological area was discovered about a hundred years ago. It was recognized as a World Heritage Site in 1998. It was found out in the course of numerous studies that a stone wall of impressive size surrounded the territory of the settlement. Its height was 3 meters, and its thickness was about 2.5 meters. Complete article
The Israeli city of Eilat is known to many travelers for its beautiful beaches and luxury hotels. Not everyone knows that this city is one of the oldest in the world. The port city was founded thousands of years ago. It was known as Etzion Gever in ancient times. The first official mention of the city dates back to the 10th century BC. But the finds of archaeologists indicate that the city was formed much earlier. Complete article
The ancient city of Hamoukar is a unique archaeological monument. It is located in the North-Eastern part of modern-day Syria. Official archaeological research began in the area in 1999. The best specialists from Syria and the United States participated in them. The version that one of the oldest cities in the Middle East was located in these places was confirmed in the course of these studies. The ancient city was founded in the 5th Millennium BC. It did not last long, only about 500 years. It was destroyed in the course of the next conquest. Complete article
Another interesting ancient Neolithic city is located in Turkey. It is called Çatalhöyük. It is the largest Neolithic settlement that has been discovered in the Middle East. The earliest finds of these places date back to the 8th Millennium BC. The city was completely abandoned by the inhabitants in the middle of the 6th Millennium. According to rough estimates, there were about 2,000 residential buildings on the territory of the ancient city. About 10,000 people lived permanently in the city. Complete article
The city of Jarmo is a unique settlement from the early Neolithic period. It was founded in the 7th Millennium BC. The archaeological district is located in the scenic foothill areas. Oak and pistachio forests cover a significant part of its territory today. According to rough estimates, the area of the ancient city was more than 12,000 square meters. The city existed until the beginning of the 5th Millennium BC. Adobe structures, as well as stone tools, were discovered during research. Complete article