Air pollutants. Volcanoes that changed the face of the Earth
High mountains, beautiful lakes, spacious green valleys – it is difficult to assume that the outpourings of basalt incredible in scale served as their formation once. The possibility of a volcanic eruption makes thousands of people tremble in fear even today. Not only serious eruptions but also long episodes of magma trap occurred on our planet millions of years ago. This is the name given to the process of basalt outpouring through cracks in the earth's surface. The incandescent lava could spread for hundreds or even thousands of kilometers as a result of such an outpouring. There are large igneous provinces in the territory of every continent today. Modern landscapes would be very different without them.
Siberian Traps, Russia
One of the world's largest igneous provinces was formed in Siberia more than 252 million years ago. The eruption happened then. It is considered one of the largest in the history of the existence of our planet. According to only approximate estimates of researchers, the volume of lava that came to the surface of the earth was about 4 million cubic kilometers. The large igneous province occupies the entire territory of Western Siberia. Its area can be compared with Western Europe.
Such a serious eruption led to the death of 70% of the animals that existed on the planet. No more than 4% of marine animals survived the disaster. It is to this incredible eruption that Western Siberia owes its present unique appearance. It also influenced the formation of landscapes in the surrounding areas. A chain of basalt volcanoes formed in the territory of Transbaikalia and Mongolia after the eruption. The highest degree of trap formation is observed in the area of the city of Norilsk. Most likely, this is where the center of the trap was located millions of years ago.
There is a major mystery associated with the formation of Siberian Traps. It lies in the degree of their influence on the animal world of the Paleozoic period. Some scientists are still inclined to say that about 90% of the animals that lived on earth died as a result of the disaster. Others find such statements too categorical. They put forward versions that the eruption of incredible proportions practically did not affect the diversity of animal species that lived on earth. Samples of trap material taken in Siberia are used for a variety of studies even today. Next - Dekan Traps
Dekan Traps, India
There are many igneous provinces in India. One of the largest igneous provinces is located on the Deccan Plateau. These traps are the second largest in the world by area. They cover an area of about 500,000 square kilometers. The Deccan Traps were formed more than 60 million years ago. The researchers estimate that about 512 cubic kilometers of lava were poured onto the earth's surface during the eruption. Scientists were able to determine the approximate location of the epicenter of the eruption. It is the so-called Reunion hotspot. It is located under the island of Reunion. Complete article
Ontong Java Plateau, Solomon Islands
The giant Ontong Java Plateau is located in the Pacific Ocean. Its area is about 2 million square kilometers. Trapp can be compared in size to Alaska. It is located near the Solomon Islands. Trapp had a direct influence on the formation of this picturesque archipelago. The thickness of the trap is 30 kilometers in some places. According to rough estimates, the eruption of igneous rocks took place at this point of the earth about 125 million years ago. The period of activity lasted for more than one hundred years. About 100 million cubic kilometers of lava were thrown to the surface of the earth during this time. Complete article
Plateau of Parana-Etendeca, Brazil
The large igneous province of the Paraná-Etendeka is located in Brazil. It formed about 132 million years ago. The eruption occurred during this period. Some researchers tend to consider it the largest in the history of the earth. The fact is that magma traps of the same period were also found on the other side of the Atlantic Ocean. They were found in the territory of modern Namibia and Angola. Researchers tend to believe that the eruption was very large-scale. They believe that it has spread even to the other side of the Atlantic Ocean. Complete article
Trapp Columbia River, United States
One of the youngest magma traps on the planet is located in the United States. This is the Trapp Columbia River. It began to form about 15 million years ago. The Yellowstone hotspot became the center of magmatism. The area of the magma trap is about 163,700 square kilometers. It extends to several states: Washington, Idaho, Oregon, California, and Nevada. Complete article
Rajmahal Traps, India
Rajmahal Traps are located in India. They are also of great interest to both researchers and ordinary travelers today. They are found in Eastern India. The area of the magma plateau is about 4,100 square kilometers. A large-scale lava eruption occurred in this area of the planet at the beginning of the Cretaceous period. The Kerguelen hotspot was the epicenter of the eruption. Rajmahal Hill is the most striking reminder of the massive eruption. Its height is 608 meters. Complete article
Trap Kivino, Canada
Large igneous province Kevino is located in Canada. It is located in the Canadian Shield region, near Lake Superior. This formation originated in the Late Precambrian period. It has a rather complex structure. It is distinguished by a variety of breeds. According to some modern researchers, the sea was located in these places during the formation of the magma trap. Some features of the structure suggest that they could only have formed underwater during a lava eruption. Complete article
British-Arctic Trap Formation, Scotland
The British-Arctic Trap Formation occupies a vast area. It extends to the Faroe Islands and the British Isles, Greenland, and Iceland, as well as the island of Jan Mayen. This formation began to form more than 65 million years ago during the Early Cretaceous period. The formation of the huge magma trap lasted for more than 20 million years. It was held in four stages. The last of them ended about 40 million years ago. Complete article