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Great Britain

Architecture of Great Britain. Must see and must visit landmarks

30 St Mary Axe, London

Location on the map:     Interesting facts:
» 30st Mary Axe is the first structure in the world, claiming the title of the environmental skyscraper. The lower floors of high-rise buildings are open for access by all visitors, and there are numerous restaurants at the top.
» This high-rise building was designed by world-renowned architect Norman Foster on the former site of the Baltic Exchange, damaged as a result of the terrorist attack of the Irish Republican Army.
» The main task was to implement construction of high-rise project in such a way that the building would fit into realities of the historical area and provide view of the main attractions of central London.
» Londoners call the skyscraper ‘gherkin’ and ‘cucumber’ for its unusual shape and greenish tint of glass.
» That’s the all-glass skyscraper with its top featuring a transparent cover.

Anfield, Liverpool

Location on the map:     Interesting facts:
» Anfield is a sports center in Liverpool. Football matches between English clubs are held here.
»  Four stands accommodate over 54 thousand football fans. The highest capacity (61 905 spectators) was recorded in 1952.
»  After the tragedy happened at one of the stadiums that resulted in the death of about a hundred fans, seats for spectators appeared at Anfield.
»  You can enter the territory of the sports ground through two gates. They are named after Liverpool coaches.
»  The full-fledged owner of the stadium is the Fenway Sports Group Company.
»  Initially, the land belonged to the owner of the brewery. He provided his consent for holding sports competitions in the plot for a fee. Then, the football pitch was built here.
»  The first match took place in 1884.
»  The first stand had a red and white facade. Then, it was made of wood and corrugated iron. The Kemlyn Road stand became console, which means that it was covered with polymeric coating. Its construction cost £350 000.
»  There is a closed dome above the stands.
»  The total area of the pitch is 101х68 m.
»  You can enter it only through the turnstile by the ID card.

Balmoral Hotel , Edinburgh

Location on the map:     Interesting facts:
» Balmoral Hotel is the five star hotel located in the heart of the city, and one of the attractions of Edinburgh.
» The hotel is famous for its giant clock on the tower that became a symbol of the city. The height of the tower is 58 m.
» The hotel has 188 rooms, of which 20 are suites.
» The hotel was built in close proximity to the Waverley train station.
» Visitors of the hotel always come to the train just in time, as the clock on the tower of the hotel traditionally gains two minutes.

Beetham Tower, Manchester

Location on the map:     Interesting facts:
» The Beetham Tower is named like this because it was built by the Beetham Organization.
»  The skyscraper was constructed on a thin strip of land, so the construction is considered to be the thinnest in the world.
»  The tower is 168 m high. It is the highest tower in Manchester.
»  It has 47 floors, 22 of which are occupied by the Hilton Hotel. On the 22nd floor, there is a high cafe called Cloud 23. Other floors are occupied by apartments and penthouses.
»  In 2007, the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat declared the tower “the best highest building in the world”.
»  If the weather is good, the building is seen from 20 nearby counties. When it is windy, the upper part of the skyscraper, a so-called blade, hums eerily, which is heard even at a great distance.

Buckingham Palace, London

Location on the map:     Interesting facts:
» Any traveler can take direct part in receptions, dinners and banquets in the royal garden at Buckingham Palace.
» Walk-in days tradition appeared in the official residence of British monarchs due to lack of funds. In 1992, fire has damaged Windsor Castle, so money for its restoration was needed.
» During a visit to Buckingham Palace, just 19 rooms can be seen. The Throne, Ballroom and Banquet Hall, Music Room and Art Gallery are among them.
» The special flag is hung above the main facade of the building; it announces the presence of the Queen in the palace.
» Buckingham Palace consists of 775 rooms. The royal and guest quarters occupy 52 of them, 19 rooms are aimed at state servants, 188 chambers are reserved for staff, 92 - for offices, and 72 are bathrooms.
» The territory of Buckingham Palace has its own post office, police station, hospital, swimming pool, and cinema. The Palace houses the royal collection of works by Rubens, Rembrandt and other artists.

Cardiff Castle, Cardiff

Location on the map:     Interesting facts:
» The excavation proved that Cardiff Castle is over 2 000 years old.
»  Originally, it was an ancient Roman fortress. Later, the building served as a legal agency. Then, the noble family purchased the construction. Upon the order of the last owner, the fortress was turned into a mansion with a lot of halls.
»  It houses the collection that has a historical value. Its interior impresses with multiple stained glass windows, sophisticated braided moldings, sculptures, painted walls, and carved ceilings. All the interior elements are thoroughly designed.
»  Near the castle, there is a big parking area.
»  Cardiff is the building complex. It consists of a castle, a Gothic mansion, a clock tower, and a house called “Norman Donjon”.
»  The high pedestal leads to the fortress. Its doorways are narrow and zigzag.
»  Fortress walls are heavy stone. They are decorated with flags. You can see a red dragon in the midst of the white and green canvass.
»  There is a smoking room in the tower. The ceiling looks like a casket. It is decorated with colorful figurines of women that symbolize the morning, midday, evening and night.
»  The children’s bedroom is decorated with fabulous paintings.

Cardiff City Hall, Cardiff

Location on the map:     Interesting facts:
» The City Hall, a 60-meter clock tower, is one of the administrative institutions included in the single complex.
»  The square dome is covered with gilded disks. There is an intimidating dragon on the roof.
»  The exterior facade is faced with white stone and limestone.
»  There is a rectangular pool in front of the City Hall. The fountain complex was founded when one nobleman received the title of the Prince of Wales.
»  At the first level, there are a lot of sculptures of those who contributed much to the city. This room is called “Marble Hall”.
»  The next main room is used for the audience with important guests and diplomats. It accommodates a thousand guests. Festive ceremonies and meetings are also held here. All the premises are decorated with gilded moldings. The main theme of bas-reliefs is bizarre sea dwellers. The dome is crowned with elegant bronze lamps. They make the events organized here more important.
»  The City Council Chamber is at a higher level. In the conference room, there are magnificent marble columns ordered from Italy. The walls are covered with wooden panels.
»  On the lawn of the City Hall, the citizens relax in summer and celebrate the New Year in winter.

Cardiff City Stadium, Cardiff

Location on the map:     Interesting facts:
» The Cardiff City Stadium is smaller than the Millennium Stadium.
»  Up to 30 thousand sports fans can watch the action here at one time.
»  The size of the hybrid area is 104x66 m. The field is not heated and there are no running tracks.
»  Football and rugby players train on the arena.
»  The modern sports ground was opened in 2009. The complex has been built for 2 years. The construction of the Cardiff City Stadium cost €55 million.
»  Cardiff City played against Celtic in honor of its opening.
»  According to the decision of the club management, its symbols have been painted red again (in 2015).
»  The sports complex has a modern infrastructure. There are hotels, shops and convenient road junctions for vehicles. According to specialists and fans’ assessments, Cardiff City leads the top 10 stadiums with the highest attendance.
»  There is the memorial in honor of the famous Welsh footballer and coach Fred Keenor. Due to his merits, Welsh sportsmen played the English Cup without defeats for the first time. The sculpture depicts the coach holding the award.

Cardiff University, Cardiff

Location on the map:     Interesting facts:
» Cardiff University was founded in 1883. Its construction was received by the citizens, as it improved the status of the city. Many eminent people graduated from this educational institution.
»  The Rector of the university was a physics teacher. John Viriamu was 27 years old at that time.
»  The first female professor, Millicent Mackenzie, received the highest academic title in Britain of that period (1910). The other scientist received the international award for his activity in biology.
»  The main building is included in a single complex. The Science Center is located in the central district. Many constructions are interesting in terms of history and architecture. They are under the protection of the State.
»  14 multifunctional buildings belong to the student community. All the dormitories are located not far from the academic building.
»  The development of infrastructure and methodical training of students cost over £200 million.
»  27 thousand students study at Cardiff University.
»  Academic programs are developed in all scientific spheres. The individual program for the people of older age is very interesting too.

Castell Coch , Cardiff

Location on the map:     Interesting facts:
» The red castle resembles a fantasy building with its architecture combining different styles, Victorian and Gothic.
»  The oval construction has several round towers of different height. The unusual house is located on the hilltop. It has thick fortification walls. The patterned roof contrasts with outbuildings.
»  To enter the castle, you can cross the lift bridge. The entrance is protected with a movable grille.
»  The stone building was last rebuilt in the late 19th century. The architect reconstructed the medieval castle.
»  Castell Coch (translated as “red”) was built at the site of the former fortress of the 13th century.
»  You should visit the Red Castle to feel the atmosphere of the Middle Ages. In the audience hall that belonged to the noble family, there is the wonderful collection of picturesque canvasses and antique items. In the living room, there is a fireplace made by a famous master.
»  The former owner almost did not live in the new house although it made significant investments in its reconstruction. The Marquis passed his property to the state.
»  The building is very attractive and appeared in many fantastic films due to its picturesque landscape.

Church of Our Lady and St. Nicholas, Liverpool

Location on the map:     Interesting facts:
» There is a gilded wing boat on the spire of the church tower. This is the symbol of the city patronized by the God-pleaser who watches over sailors and travelers.
»  Originally, the church was named after the Virgin Mary (1257). It was rebuilt when the number of parishioners had risen. Then, the name of St. Nicholas was added to the name of the building.
»  The church is located in the city center. Long windows give so much light that electric lights are switched on only at night. Stained glass windows depict the Mother of God and St. Nicholas.
»  The inner walls are decorated with massive wood panels. On them, you can see patterns of bunches of grapes. These symbols are related to the words of the Son of God “I am the vine, you are the branches”.
»  Organ concerts that go hand in hand with other events are held in the church.
»  The stone fence surrounds the construction. Here, you can also see a fountain, from which you can even draw water.
»  The memorial Simpson Fountain pointed by the engraved plate is dedicated to William Simpson. He helped people in need and never refused to help. Traffic was blocked on the day of his funeral because too many people came to accompany him on his last journey.

Church of St. Luke, Liverpool

Location on the map:     Interesting facts:
» St. Luke Church is buried in lush thickets of the city garden. The sharp top with a spire of the House of God rises over nearby houses and is seen from afar.
»  The history of St. Luke Church goes back to several centuries. However, the exact date of the construction of the church is not known.
»  The building gained its present form in 1971. The entire construction is faced with gray cut stone produced in the local sand quarry. The bright red tiled roof contrasts with other exterior elements.
»  The outer walls of the cult building are decorated with moldings. Every picture depicts a particular Biblical scene.
»  Stained glass windows have the form of arches. One of the windows depicts the unknown Liver bird. The frames are decorated with curls.
»  The strict design made a sharp contrast with decorative leaves, which confirms the date of the construction (between the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, 1811).
»  There is a crypt in the subsoil of the church.
»  The bells and the clock on the bell tower were damaged during the bombing in 1941.
»  The temple was named after evangelist St. Luke. He followed Christ’s precepts, became a healer and a preacher, and propagated Christ’s teachings.

Clyde Arc Bridge, Glasgow

Location on the map:     Interesting facts:
» The Clyde Arc is known as the Squinty Bridge among locals. It significantly differs from its fellows in curved structure and is laid across the Clyde River at an angle.
» It was built in 2006 by the Edmund Nuttall construction company and serves as a highway connecting the opposite parts of the city – the north district and the south bank of the river.
» The highway is 169 meters long. Four lanes provide an uninterrupted traffic flow. Two lanes are made for public transport, the other two are used by other vehicles. There’s also a pedestrian zone.
» The wonder construction is unique in its design – a span over the river resembles an arc. The solid metal arch has a large height radius.
» The citizens are proud of the local landmark. Being one of the futuristic constructions, the Clyde Arc Bridge can often be seen on souvenirs.
» A tramway is going to be built here. The construction of the bridge is necessary as the number of vehicles increased dramatically. A new direction is needed for vehicles to move freely.
» Similar constructions were erected in the city 30 years ago.

Cottier Theatre, Glasgow

Location on the map:   Interesting facts: » Scottish Opera and Ballet’s troupes as well as actors from the Theatre Company perform in Melpomene’s building. Besides, the theatre hosts Mayfest, a festival of theatre, and touring companies perform here.
» The construction is curious architecturally. In 1867, an elaborate building – the Royal Theatre – was constructed. All kinds of productions were staged there. The red brick facade has a brightly written inscription – The Kinds. The exterior design is a fusion of two architectural styles: baroque and Art Nouveau.
» Thanks to a special support structure in the form of high vertical pillars, the auditorium has a wider field of view.
» A vaulted ceiling in the lobby is made of red and white marble tiles. The walls are finished with fresco plaster painted in cream and gold with coloured inclusions.
» After climbing the decorative stairs, a visitor gets to the four-tier auditorium which can hold over a thousand people.
» The upholstery and curtains have the same colouring – a rich shade of red. The orchestra pit holds up to a hundred musicians.
» The backstage areas were expanded. Cloakrooms were modernized. Guests can visit a restaurant and a bar during intermissions.
Great Britain guide chapters 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

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Photogallery of Great Britain architecture

What to see in top cities of Great Britain

London
If you want to see something unusual, head to the Greenford metro station. The London Underground or The Tube is famous for its long escalators. In the 19th century, the escalators were made exclusively of wood. Naturally, later they were replaced with more modern models, but one antique escalator can be still seen in Greenford Station. Locals use the old wooden escalator every day, but for travelers, a ride on it is a true exotic entertainment. Are you fond of unusual excursions? If so, … Read more
Edinburgh
Having walked in the catacombs, it’s time to go up and visit one of the most interesting observation decks in Edinburgh - Arthur’s Sea. A hill with the symbolic name appeared because of volcanic activity thousands of years ago. Nowadays, a climb to its top remains one of the most popular entertainments among fans of walking. Several trails lead to the top of the hill, including short and steep ones, and long and flat roads. Travelers, who reach the top of the hill, are guaranteed to rest in … Read more
Liverpool
If you crave for some unusual pastime, it’s high time to make an excursion in a landing vehicle The Yellow Duckmarine. The latter is something average between a usual tourist bus (without a doubt, a yellow colored one) and a boat. The unusual vehicles are usually docked near Albert Dock as that is the traditional starting point of an amazing bus excursion to the most attractive places of Liverpool. When returning to the dock, don’t be scared when the bus starts slowly moving into the water. … Read more

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