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Architecture of Estonia. Must see and must visit landmarks

Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, Tallinn

Location on the map:     Interesting facts:
» The five-domed cathedral is located on a small hill and is seen from afar. The Alexander Nevsky Cathedral was built and blessed by the bishop in 1990. The wonder-working icon of the Mother of God was delivered for the ceremony.
» The allocations of the Synod were not sufficient for the construction. The missing amount was collected in Rus. The sacred house is a reminder of saving royal figures after the train accident.
» The ethereal defender of Emperor Alexander III was Prince Nevsky. The cathedral was named after him.
» There are gilded iron crosses above the domes. There are mosaic panels on the facade. There is stained glass in the windows. 11 temple bells weigh over 26 tons. They were made in St. Petersburg. Ringers toll before the church service. The ringing bells are heard throughout the district.
» The interior is decorated according to the Biblical sketches of architect Preobrazhensky. There are many mosaics and icons inside. The wooden gilded iconostasis occupies the central wall of the cathedral.
» In the 30s, the government decided to demolish the cathedral but the abbot, the brother of the Estonian President, defended it.
» The cathedral was built in the likeness of temples of the 17th century and accommodates 1.5 thousand people.

Church of St. Charles, Tallinn

Location on the map:   Interesting facts: » The Church of St. Charles (Kaarli) was found many centuries ago, in 1670. It was named after the Swedish King, Charles XI.
» It was restored on donations from parishioners in the early 19th century. The city population grew at that time, so there was a necessity in constructing the new House of God.
» It has two towers with spires. The building is made of monolithic limestone slabs and impresses with its size. The church resembles the Latin cross with its shape. According to the project, sculptures should have been installed in the niches but there are no sculptures now.
» There are arched windows on the exterior facade. There is a German-made clock (1990) in the round window above the door. One church bell has been preserved since the construction of the building.
» The wooden ceiling is upheld by brick arches. So, there are no partition pillars, so the room seems to be spacious.
» There is an organ with 81 tones which lets play classical and sacred music for 1500 listeners.
» The first Estonian fresco of 1870 has a historical value. At the bottom of the altar, there is a painted composition of blessing Christ consisted of 3 parts.

Estonian Maritime Museum, Tallinn

Location on the map:     Interesting facts:
» In the Maritime Museum, you can learn more about the secrets of the port service, equipment of seaworthy ships, artifacts found on the sea bottom, and the history of voyages. The Museum is located in the Fat Margaret Tower and in the hangar of the Air Harbour on the sea coast.
» You can observe the entire Tallinn port from the upper level of the tower. At the 4th level, there are tracking devices, the collection of sea navigation maps, fishing traps, archival documents and pictures, ships’ models, and the collection of naval mines.
» In Lennusadam (the harbor), you can see real seaplanes, working warships, and the oldest schooner in the country. The steam icebreaker (1914), the biggest exhibit, is moored to the berth. Tourists can taste dishes from the ship galley.
» The remains of the old ship that was constructed without any nails at all will also attract attention. You can inspect the “Lembit” Submarine from the inside.
» One of the collections pays tribute to “Estonia” Ferry sinking in 1994. Its model is kept here.
» You can see the records of bottom researches made by the robot on big screens in the Interactive Underwater Archaeology Museum. The excursion will end with the visiting of the huge aquarium.

Kadriorg Palace, Tallinn

Location on the map:     Interesting facts:
» The park complex on the hill slope has a total area of 70 hectares. It was found several centuries ago (at the beginning of the 18th century) as the summer cottage of Peter the Great, as a gift to his wife. As the legend says, Peter I placed the first stone into the foundation of the building himself.
» Now, there is a museum at the 2nd level of Peter’s House. His personal belongings are kept here.
» The park has preserved its landscapes since that time: small ponds with fountains, a flower garden, Swan Pond with black swans, an island, and a gazebo.
» The name “Kadriorg” came from Kadri, which is the Estonian name for Catherine.
» Exhibits from the Estonian Art Museum made by the Italian architect are kept in the palace. The palace accommodates almost 200 people.
» The part of the facade protrudes and takes the whole height of the building. In the wall of the lobby, there is a memorial plaque with the picture of the Russian state symbols and the anchor, as well as with the Latin text about the start of construction.
» The interior of palace rooms (the White Hall) is decorated with moldings and azure columns. There are plafonds with flower decorations on the ceiling.
» The entire territory is decorated with sculptures and monuments to culture figures, the rosary, and the Japanese Garden.

Kiek in de Kok, Tallinn

Location on the map:     Interesting facts:
» As the legend says, medieval guards looked at kitchens of residents through chimneys from the 38-meter artillery tower. That is why it is called Kiek in de Kok.
» The stronghold had been built for 8 years. It was finished in 1470. Its walls are 4 m long, its height is 48 m, and its diameter is 17 m.
» The upper level was destroyed by the troops of Ivan the Terrible but the tower survived. Round shells that weigh 100 kg were put into the walls.
» Powder was kept at the ground level. There are furnaces for heating balls.
» The tower ends with a platform. Soldiers fired balls and poured melted metal onto enemies from it.
» You can learn more about the military history of the city by visiting the museum in the tower. Each of the six levels of the fortification is dedicated to a particular period.
» At the first level, you can acquaint with modern art. You can also see old weapons and medieval household items here. There are models of fortress walls at the third level. Historic films can also be of your interest. At the 4th level, you can see military items of different periods and exhibits performing the period of the plague and ancient tortures. The 5th level is an arms hall with lots of interactive stands. There is a cafe at the last level.
» You can see the city through vaulted windows.

St Mary Cathedral, Tallinn

Location on the map:     Interesting facts:
» At the beginning of the 13th century, a small wooden church named after the Most Holy Mother of God was built in Old Tallinn.
» The exterior of the building has changed for hundreds of years. The burials of famous people with verses in their honor have been preserved.
» The building combines different architectural styles. Only the wooden part of the altar has remained untouched. There is the painting of crucified Jesus above it.
» The spruce ceiling above the honorable bishop’s seat in the long hall enhances the sound of the preacher’s voice. There are carved graphic compositions (wooden arms) of famous families on the walls.
» In the organ gallery, there is a 47-tone mechanism made by the German master in 1878. It sounds incredible due to the good acoustics in the gallery.
» When Catherine II ruled, the bell tower was built above the cathedral. You can climb up the stairs to reach it.
» The octagonal carcass ends with the gallery in the form of the arch. There is a vane attached to the sphere above it. It is crowned with a gilded flower that resembles a lily, the symbol of the Virgin Mary’s virginity.
» The white stone Dome Cathedral is the residence of the bishop of the Evangelic Lutheran Church.

St. Nicholas Church, Tallinn

Location on the map:     Interesting facts:
» The temple was named after the patron of sailors, St. Nicholas. German merchants found it in the 8th century. The room was used for commercial transactions.
» The house was being built for hundreds of years. In the 14th century, a western tower was built. The walls of the church had defended the building from enemies’ attacks for a while.
» During the Second World War, the building was partially destroyed due to the air raid. Some medieval pieces of art were saved.
» After the war, the building was being reconstructed. The spire was restored. Years later, it collapsed in coincidences.
» Former Lutheran St. Nicholas Church started to serve as a museum. It houses artifacts from several churches.
» The part of the preserved painting “The Dance of Death” is especially valuable. It is displayed in St. Anthony Chapel.
» The building has amazing acoustics, so organ concerts and church choirs are often held here. You can learn more about the way of life in ancient Tallinn by visiting exhibitions held in the Niguliste Museum.
» You can see a range of gravestones in the territory of the church. One of them dates back to 1520.
» The building of the church was even shown in several films. The church is not used for masses.

St. Olaf Church, Tallinn

Location on the map:     Interesting facts:
» As the preserved archives say, the church was built in 1267 as a Catholic construction and belonged to nuns from the convent.
» The building was struck by lightning 8 times. It was on fire during a thunderstorm several times. After the fire in the middle of the 19th century, its area reduced to 123 m.
»  The spire served as a pointer for sailors.
» The King of Norway was canonized for his godly deeds here. St. Olaf Church is named after him.
» The building was reconstructed in the 15th century. It started to look like a basilica with rectangular pillars.
» The Chapel of the Virgin Mary was built in a hundred years. There is a spiral staircase leading to the observation platform. 232 steps have different heights, which hinders the ascent.
» 1950 has seen the consolidation of seven religious communities under the arches of the temple.
» The church is distinguished by intersecting carcass arches that make a geometric pattern of stars. There is the St. Olaf bas-relief behind the altar. There is a preserved slab that reminds of the public figure and instigator of the construction.
» The Biblical words are engraved on the symbolic grave of Christ. Church services are held here.

Tallinn TV Tower, Tallinn

Location on the map:     Interesting facts:
» The TV Tower was opened in 1980 in commemoration of the Olympic Games. It broadcast sports events. Its intended purpose is to provide communication equipment for receiving TV and radio signals.
» Excursions around the building have been held since 2012.
» The Tallinn TV Tower is built of concrete and iron and resembles a trunk that is 190 m high. 124-meter iron mast is attached to it.
» On the ground and 1st floors of the hall, you can see pictures of the building process and visit a gift shop. There is a conference hall, a cinema, and stands dedicated to the country and the capital.
» You can use the high-speed lift with a height sensor.
» There is an outdoor observation platform in the shape of the horseshoe with field glasses and interactive displays. It is located at the 21st level (170 m from the ground) and protected by the fine iron mesh. Here, you can read copies of newspapers about the putsch of 1991.
» If you get up the spiral stairs to the 21st level, you will find an outdoor terrace with a small cafe.
» You can look through the glass hole in the floor and see 80 m of empty space under your feet.
» Fans of extreme are offered to go round the tower for half an hour at a height using special ropes.

Tallinn Town Hall, Tallinn

Location on the map:     Interesting facts:
» The city management of medieval Tallinn (Revel at that time) is aged over 600 years. The single-storied limestone building was first mentioned in the written source in 1322.
» The Town Hall was equipped and widened at the end of the 14th century. Then, the second floor with audience halls was built. The tower was then constructed. In 1530, the vane called “Old Thomas” was attached.
» The weirs resemble copper dragons’ heads. The basement of the Town Hall serves as a wine cellar. Alcohol sales brought a huge profit to the city. The windows in the basement have stepped sills. There is also a preserved fireplace. There is a burger-ish hall or a lobby above it. Festive events were held and foreign actors performed here.
» The room is well illuminated. You can see Christmas patterns on the piles that uphold the vault. There are municipal arms above the front door.
» The part of the building is occupied by the Master’s Hall. The Town Government sat and court hearings were held here. The red walls with pictures of coat hearings prove this.
» There is a preserved brick chimney of the 19th century and a hole for hand washing in the kitchen. The sewerage system has been also preserved to this day.
» The Town Hall is a place where treasures worked. Later, the city mayor occupied the room.
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